最近朋友圈被电水壶给刷屏了,据说高锰钢制作的电水壶有碍健康。据传言所讲,因为现在的电水壶很多都是高锰钢材质,这种材料会释放重金属——锰。长期使用会对身体健康造成伤害。高锰钢究竟是什么?释放的锰究竟有多大风险呢?我们还能用电水壶吗?

1、锰是什么?

锰是一种常见金属元素,它对人体并非毫益处。相反,它也是人体必需的一种微量元素,对于人体健康也有重要作用。它是人体结缔组织、 骨骼、凝血因子、性激素等的组成成分,对于脂肪与碳水化合物代谢、钙吸收、血糖调节等也不可或缺。正常的大脑与神经功能活动也离不开它的参与,锰不足会影 响神经发育。

2、高锰钢与304不锈钢到底有什么区别?

高锰钢指含锰量在10%以上的合金钢,也属于一种不锈钢材料,只不过标号不同,材质组成成分略有差异。其实,只要是合格的高锰钢材质做成的食品容器,都不会对人体产生危害,也不会析出更多的锰。

3、用高锰钢电水壶烧水喝,会导致记忆力衰退吗?

并不会。《中国居民膳食营养素参考摄入量》(2013)中规定,成年人锰的最高可耐受摄入量为11毫克/天,也就是说,一个体重60公斤的成人,每天摄入11毫克锰不会产生健康危害的。那么,我们每天会吃进去多少锰呢?

我国的全国营养调查结果显示,中国居民每天从膳食中摄入的锰是6.8 毫克。我国规定饮用水中锰的含量不超过0.1 毫克/升,以此水平计算,若每天饮水2 升,则通过饮水摄入的锰为0.2毫克。在2012年的高压锅锰超标事件中,我国也进行了风险评估,对40件锅具产品进行了检测。检测结果表明:平均锰迁移 量为每公斤食物0.35毫克,若60公斤的成人每天吃3公斤食物,则来自不锈钢容器的摄入量是1.05毫克,这个量就很低了。不锈钢炊具析出的锰,加上人 体每日通过膳食、饮用水摄入的锰,远未达到人体每天最大耐受量11毫克的水平。因此,可以认为,我们日常的锰摄入是处于安全水平的,并不用太担心。而且,锰过量引起的中毒主要出现在特殊的行业和职业中,例如长期从事锰的开采、冶炼和加工以及电焊的产业工人,而且主要通过呼吸道进入人体内。要知道,我们 的胃肠道对锰的吸收率非常低,仅为1~5%,目前还未在临床上发现过普通居民因饮食摄入锰引起不良反应的病例,也未见因使用不锈钢制品导致锰过量、锰中毒 的案例。所以,我们并不太需要担心饮食中摄入的锰,也就说并不需要太担心日常食用不锈钢电水壶或者锅会导致锰中毒。

4、饮用水中,锰的允许含量是多少?

我国生活饮用水卫生标准规定,锰含量不得超过0.1mg/L。当锰的质量浓度超过0.1mg/L,会使饮用水发出令人不快的味道,并使器皿和洗涤的衣服着色。

5、锰超标饮用水能用于洗澡吗?

能用于除食用(饮用、做饭、洗菜等)外的任何生活用水,如洗澡、洗衣等因为锰元素通过皮肤吸收甚微,不会对身体造成影响。

6、饮用水锰超标有什么危害?

饮用水锰过多,可引起食欲不振呕吐腹泻,胃肠道紊乱,大便失常。据美国、芬兰科学家研究证明,人体中铁锰过多对心脏有影响,甚至比胆固醇更危险。锰超标会影响人的中枢神经,过量摄入对智力和生殖功能有影响。

7、人体吸入多少锰才会引起中毒?

急性锰中毒常见于口服浓于1%高锰酸钾溶液,引起口腔粘膜糜烂、恶心、呕吐、胃部疼痛;3%~5%溶液发生胃肠道粘膜坏死,引起腹痛、便血,甚至休克;5~19g锰可致命。在通风不良条件下进行电焊,吸入大量新生的氧化锰烟雾,可发生咽痛、咳嗽、气急,并骤发寒战和高热。慢性锰中毒一般在接触锰的烟、尘3~5年或更长时间后发病。

8、锰中毒的早期症状有哪些?

早期表现为疲倦乏力、头昏头痛、记忆力减退、肌肉疼痛、情绪上不稳定、抑郁或激动。随着病情的发展又逐渐出现下肢有沉重感,走路晃动,语言不清或“口吃”,表情呆滞。

9、电水壶还能用吗?如何挑选电水壶?

从前面的分析我们知道,不锈钢容器中析出的锰在我们日常锰摄入所占比例并不高,而且,我们摄入的锰的量也处于安全水平,并不用太担心,还是放心使用吧。

不过,一些不法商家生产的不锈钢水壶也可能存在不合格,建议消费者在挑选水壶时尽量去正规的超市购买,尽量挑选有品牌的大厂商。

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