饮用水的软硬与人体健康有什么关系?生活饮用水,有软水和硬水之分,这是由水中碳酸盐含量多少决定的。水的硬度一般分为六级:4度以下为软水,4-8 度为中等软水,8-12度为轻度硬水,12-18度为中等硬水, 18-30度为硬水,30度以上为高硬水。

水的硬度高低,与水中钙、镁等盐类含量有关。水中钙和镁的重要来源是地层中的石灰石。当海水、工业废水和生活污水等进入水源时,也能使水的硬度升高。

水的硬度又可分为暂时硬度和永久硬度。暂时硬度水在煮沸之后,因发生碳酸钙沉淀并放出二氧化碳而使水质变软。 永久硬度水即使在煮沸时,因含有钙镁的硫酸盐、硝酸盐及氯 化盐等,也不发生沉淀,故不能削弱硬度。

饮食用水的硬度与人们日常生活和健康有密切关系。钙和镁是人体必需的矿物质。水中含量过低时,就会影响人体 钙、镁的正常代谢,从而可导致佝偻病或骨软化症,还会使心 肌功能受到影响;含量过高时,不仅会使水产生苦湿味,而且饮用这种水还可引起胃肠功能紊乱。特别是原来吃软水的人,突然改为吃硬水时,可出现腹泻,这就是通常所说的“水土不服”。

水的硬度与心血管疾病有关。在高硬度地区心血管痕发病率低,其原因可能是水中钙含量高,在体内可以阻止对心血 管有害的镉和铅的吸收。又因血钙升高,有助于降低血脂水平,对心脏病的发展有缓解作用。镁在体内有延长凝血时间和阻止血栓形成的作用。有人报道,在水硬度为22. 9-35度 的地区,肾结石发病率高;而硬度在1.5-3度的地区肾结石 病少见。水中钙含量高,肾小管吸收受到影响,因而易诱发结石。

硬水形成锅垢后,不仅使燃料大量浪费,而且述有可能造成锅炉爆炸。实验表明,使用液化石油气把一壶2〜5升冷水烧开,无水垢只需8〜10分钟,有水垢的则需15分钟左右,燃 料消耗要多30%。用硬水洗衣服,肥皂不爱起泡,去污效力 降低,这是因为肥皂中的硬脂酸钠遇到水中的钙和镁时,产生一种叫硬脂酸钙(镁)的沉淀物所致。

从我国饮用水源情况来看,南方多以地表水如江、河、湖水为主,硬度偏低,属于软水;北方地区以地下水为主,硬度较 高。北京地区也是以地下水为水源,硬度多在20度左右。我 国的《生活饮用水卫生标准》中规定,饮水的硬度不超过25 度。日本饮水标准规定不超过30度。饮用轻度或中度的硬 水最为理想,水的味道好,对身体健康也有益。

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